România, Bulgaria, Moldova, Serbia. Avantaje competitive.

Când un investitor decide să înceapă o afacere în regiunea noastră, are de ales de regulă între câteva ţări: dacă vrea să aleagă o ţară din Uniunea Europeană, atunci va oscila cel mai adesea între Romania şi Bulgaria, ultimele intrate şi totodată cele cu cel mai redus cost al mâinii de lucru dintre ţările Uniunii. Dacă vrea să aleagă a ţară din afara Uniunii, atunci Serbia şi Republica Moldova par să fie 2 din cele mai apropiate variante.

Totuşi e destul de dificil să facem în final o alegere, dat fiind că fiecare din aceste ţări prezintă avantaje şi dezavantaje. Aşa că mi-am propus să fac o trecere în revistă a principalelor elemente pe care le ia în calcul un investitor atunci când decide să demareze o afacere în una din aceste ţări.

În primul rând am încercat să grupez într-un tabel comparativ principalele tipuri de taxe şi impozite, respectiv principalele costuri pe care un investitor trebuie să le suporte în fiecare din cele 4 ţări analizate. Le redau mai jos:

România Bulgaria Republica Moldova Serbia
Impozit pe profit 16% dar nu mai puţin de cotele impuse prin impozitul forfetar 10% 15% 10%
Dividende 16% 5% 15% 20%
TVA 19% 20% 20% 18%
Taxarea muncii (taxe şi contribuţii aferente salariului ) 80-85% 25-40% 45-60% 80-85%
Salariul minim net (euro) 110 120 30 131
Salariul mediu net (euro) 325 281 188 330
Capital minim pentru start-up (euro) 50 2500 350 500
Timp necesar pentru inregistrarea unei companii 3-5 zile 30 zile 10-15 zile 20-30 zile

Daca e să privim tabelul de mai sus, vom observa că Bulgaria şi Serbia sunt cele mai avantajoase din punct de vedere al impozitării profitului, iar Bulgaria este pe departe cea mai avantajoasă din punctul de vedere al taxării dividendelor şi taxării muncii.

Din punct de vedere al taxei pe valoarea adăugată toate cele 4 ţări se situează pe poziţii apropiate, cu un uşor avantaj în cazul Serbiei, iar din punct de vedere al salariului minim si salariului mediu, cele mai avantajoase valori le prezintă Republica Moldova, urmată de Bulgaria, în timp de România şi Serbia au cele mai ridicate valori, situându-se pe poziţii sensibil egale.

În ceea ce priveşte start-up-ul unui nou business, cele mai bune condiţii le oferă România, atât datorită capitalului scăzut necesar pentru înregistrarea unei companii, ceea ce facilitează accesul pe piaţă inclusiv pentru companiile mici, dar şi din punct de vedere al timpului de înregistrare şi al birocraţiei, respectiv procedurilor de înregistrare, mult mai simple decât în cazul celorlalte 2 ţări. Pe locul 2 după România la acest capitol se situează Republica Moldova.

Din punctul de vedere al facilităţilor fiscale oferite investitorilor, pe locul 1 se situează Republica Moldova, cu posibilitatea scutirii integrale la plata impozitului pe profit până la 3 ani pentru companiile mici şi mijlocii sau 5 ani pentru companiile din domeniul IT, respectiv cu alte tipuri de facilităţi destinate marilor investiţii. Şi România oferea până recent un model interesant de facilitate, prin ceea ce reprezentau microînteprinderile, dar din păcate introducerea impozitului forfetar a făcut ca această facilitate să îşi piardă din atractivitate.

Un alt aspect important pentru investitori îl constituie costul utilităţilor şi facilităţilor de producţie. Din acest punct de vedere cele mai avantajoase condiţii le oferă Republica Moldova şi Bulgaria.

Pentru cei care sunt interesaţi de demararea unui nou business in regiune, nu pentru crearea de capacităţi productive, ci pentru dezvoltarea unei reţele de desfacere, în mod evident cel mai mare avantaj îl prezintă România, a cărei piaţă de desfacere depăşeşte dimensiunea celorlalte 3 ţări însumate.

Iată doar câteva elemente comparative, care pot constitui baza de plecare pentru o viitoare investiţie în regiune. Noi am făcut deja primul pas, Ascent Group având birouri proprii în fiecare din cele 4 ţări analizate mai sus. Aşa că, dacă v-aţi hotărât să demaraţi o afacere în oricare din ţările la care am făcut referire, vă aşteptăm pentru a vă însoţi încă de la primi paşi….

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